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Schizophrenia is known to impair reproductive and occupational functioning, and thus, the condition would appear to be a poorly adaptive trait. In contrast to expectations, the high frequency of schizophrenia, coupled with the existence of differing but analogous high schizophrenia risk polymorphisms across the globe, suggest that high risk schizophrenia genotypes could have experienced some positive rather than negative selection pressures. Indeed, the set of cellular and tissue processes influenced by schizophrenia - including manipulations of oligodendrocyte development, complement mediated immunity, VRK2, sulfation of heparin, IL-18, availability of glutamate, and interactions with sex hormones - overlaps with the set of cellular and tissue processes affected during Vaccinia encephalitis. Many schizophrenia-associated influences appear to oppose orthopoxvirus related influences; and many of the proteins suppressed in the schizophrenia phenotype are proteins either produced by or necessary for Vaccinia. Accounts from the early part of the 20th century affirm that Vaccinia encephalitis resembles Variola encephalitis; and genomic sequencing studies confirm significant homology between the species. On the basis of similarity of Variola to Vaccinia, and on the basis of evidence derived from studies on Vaccinia and other orthopoxviruses, it is proposed that high schizophrenia risk genotypes may have served a protective function against smallpox.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Medical hypotheses
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Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.
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