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The Waste Framework Directive regulates the recycling of waste in Europe. The definition of waste is specified in different guidelines and regulations. Mixed Commercial Waste is waste from industry which is not collected separately. Currently there is little known about its composition. Mixed Municipal Waste, on the other hand, is household waste that cannot be attributed to any separately collected waste fraction (AdSLR, 2012). Both wastes are currently treated focussing on the generation of refuse-derived fuel rather than on the separation of recyclables (mainly performed for metals). The purpose of this paper is to characterise the amounts of various plastic types contained in different grain sizes of two-dimensional and three-dimensional plastics sorting fractions of both waste types. Nine types of plastics were identified as potential recycling materials for which recycling processes as well as a market are available. Both wastes were shredded, sampled and sieved into nine grain size classes (GSC). Fractions coarser than 20 mm were sorted, generating a 'plastics-2D' and a 'plastics-3D' fraction among others. The two plastics fractions were further characterised as plastic types using a near-infrared sensor and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. The results reveal a potential for plastic recycling through mechanical and feedstock recycling options for the examined wastes. Certain types of plastics, of certain dimensionality, tend to come in certain grain sizes, which is essential for mechanical enrichment and discharge.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Waste management (New York, N.Y.)
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Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
SEEDS used as a major nutritional source, most often the grain from the POACEAE family.
Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.