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Cyanobacterial blooms are an increasing problem in a more eutrophic world. It is still a challenge to fully understand the influence of cyanobacteria on the interactions between predator and prey at higher trophic levels. The present study was mainly undertaken to understand the inducible anti-predator responses of cladocerans while using cyanobacteria as part of food. Specifically speaking, we focused on the anti-predator strategies of Ceriodaphnia cornuta in response to different predators (fish and Chaoborus larvae) under food with different proportions of Microcystis aeruginosa. The morphological (i.e., body size and the induction of horns) and life history traits (e.g., time to first reproduction, offspring number, and survival time) responses were measured under different proportions of M. aeruginosa (i.e., 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). Our results showed that both the life history and the inducible anti-predator responses of C. cornuta were significantly affected by different concentrations of M. aeruginosa. Specifically, lower concentrations of Microcystis (20%-60%) can significantly promote the horns induction under Chaoborus predation risks, and higher Microcystis concentrations (60%-100%) tend to enhance reproduction in response to fish predation risks, such as larger body size, decreased time to first reproduction, and increased total offspring number. Additionally, an increasing concentration of M. aeruginosa decreased the ability of C. cornuta to reverse horns when predation risks removed. Our findings indicated that cyanobacteria affecting life history traits and the subsequent indirect effects on anti-predator responses in cladocerans could impact the interactions between predator and prey at higher trophic levels and may consequently contribute to shaping the structure of the community in a cyanobacteria bloom area.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
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Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A B7 antigen that binds specifically to INDUCIBLE T-CELL CO-STIMULATOR PROTEIN on T-CELLS. It provides a costimulatory signal for T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion.
A costimulatory receptor that is specific for INDUCIBLE T-CELL CO-STIMULATOR LIGAND. The receptor is associated with a diverse array of immunologically-related effects including the increased synthesis of INTERLEUKIN 10 in REGULATORY T-LYMPHOCYTES and the induction of PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...