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This paper proposes an approach to rationally set automated vehicles' car following behavior that explicitly balances between the competing considerations of safety (i.e. small probabilities of a high-consequence crash) and efficiency (guaranteed but small impacts on journey arrival time due to the choice of car following distance). The specification of safety and efficiency are both based on empirically supported concepts and data. In numerical analyses with empirical vehicle trajectories at two sites, we demonstrate intuitive response to systematic variation in numerical values selected as inputs, as well as whether the scope of the efficiency consideration is selfish or systemwide. The proposed balancing is aligned with the standard "Hand Rule" criterion to demonstrate that a duty of care has been met, in which a burden must be borne if it is less than the product of the probability of loss to a third party and the magnitude of loss. Thus the proposed approach is intended to be useful for designers of control algorithms for AVs to establish that they have met their duty of care, taking both safety and efficiency into account.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Accident; analysis and prevention
In order to introduce automated vehicles on public roads, it is necessary to ensure that these vehicles are safe to operate in traffic. One challenge is to prove that all physically possible variation...
Experimentally investigate maneuver decision preferences in navigating ships to avoid a collision. How is safety (collision avoidance) balanced against efficiency (deviation from path and delay) and r...
The connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies have made great progresses. It has been commonly accepted that CV or AV technologies would reduce human errors in driving and benefit traffic saf...
Automated vehicles are emerging on the transportation networks as manufacturers test their automated driving system (ADS) capabilities in complex real-world environments in testing operations like Cal...
This paper investigates driver engagement with vehicle automation and the transition to manual control in the context of a phenomenon that we have termed vicarious steering-drivers steering when the v...
Evaluate the efficiency of adopting the automated needle processing system by evaluating efficiency, usability and safety when using ANDY(Automatic Needle Destroyer). Install ANDY(Automati...
The study will investigate the safety and effectiveness of daily post surgical scar management, using a moisture-balancing base product containing different amounts of a novel (NCE) antifi...
The "Safe Vehicle Engagement (SaVE)" trials are 3 parallel randomized clinical trials that aim to determine the impact of text messaging (SMS) vehicle safety interventions vs. weekly SMS v...
At level 3 conditionally automated, the vehicle ensures driving and the driver disengages from driving to perform another activity independent of driving (ex: read a book, play on his phon...
To ensure a successful outcome after total knee replacement (TKR) soft tissue balance and proper implant position are very important during the surgical procedure. Soft tissues are structu...
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Using certified ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS technology to improve quality, safety, efficiency, and reduce HEALTHCARE DISPARITIES; engage patients and families in their health care; improve care coordination; improve population and public health; while maintaining privacy and security.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
A method of differentiating individuals based on the analysis of qualitative or quantitative biological traits or patterns. This process which has applications in forensics and identity theft prevention includes DNA profiles or DNA fingerprints, hand fingerprints, automated facial recognition, iris scan, hand geometry, retinal scan, vascular patterns, automated voice pattern recognition, and ultrasound of fingers.
An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.