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SOH-carbocatalysts with nitrogen functionalities were prepared using the carbonization of polybenzoxazine derived from four different amines (aniline, ethylenediamine, triethylenetetramine, and tetraethylenepentamine) and then sulfonation. The obtained SOH-carbocatalysts underwent catalytic testing for furfural oxidation with HO to produce succinic acid. The effects of nitrogen functionalities were reported for the first time. The results showed that all carbon samples exhibited a microporous characteristic with comparable textural properties and contained various nitrogen functionalities (N-6, N-5, N-Q, and N-X). After sulfonation, the SOH-carbocatalyst prepared from tetraethylenepentamine-based polybenzoxazine had the highest amount of sulfonic acid groups (1.45 mmol g) and a high nitrogen content (4.23%), providing a maximum succinic acid yield of 93.0% within a rapid reaction time of 60 min under the optimized conditions. This was higher than from Amberlyst-type catalysts and SOH-carbocatalyst without nitrogen functionalities and was ascribed to the synergistic activity of the sulfonic acid groups and nitrogen functionalities. The XPS spectra and computational study confirmed that such nitrogen functionalities, especially N-5, are capable of forming hydrogen bonding with furfural, facilitating the formation of an intermediate compound and thereby enhancing the catalytic efficiency. However, after four cycles, the succinic acid yield decreased to 40% due to leaching of the sulfonic acid groups.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of colloid and interface science
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A class of dicarboxylic acids with the general structure of butanedioic acid (succinic acid). They are used in perfumery and as a chemical intermediate in medicine.
An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 18.104.22.168.
A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The salts and esters of SUCCINIC ACID and its derivatives.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)