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Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most widely used technology in water treatment and desalination technologies for potable water production. Since its invention, RO has undergone significant developments in terms of material science, process, system optimization, methods of membrane synthesis, and modifications. Among various materials used for the synthesis of an RO membrane, the polyamide thin-film composite (PA-TFC) is by far the most common, owing to its excellent water permeability high salt rejection, and stability. However, a tradeoff between membrane permeability and salt rejection and membrane fouling has been a major hindrance for the effective application of this membrane. Thus, a broad investigation has been carried out to address these problems, and among which co-solvent interfacial polymerization (CAIP) and the surface modification of substrates and active layers of RO membrane have been the most effective approaches for controlling and improving the surface properties of the PA-TFC membrane. In this review paper, the problems associated with the RO membrane processes and strategies has been discussed and addressed in detail. Furthermore, as the focus of this review, the major advancements in the strategies used for enhancement of RO membrane performance through CAIP, and surface modifications were scrutinized and summarized.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Advances in colloid and interface science
Energy-efficient membrane technology has received tremendous attention for the separation of organic molecules, however, the separation of molecules of less than 100 Da has remained challenging. Herei...
For the past 30 years, thin-film membrane composites have been the state-of-the-art technology for reverse osmosis, nano- and ultrafiltration, and gas separation. However, traditional membrane casting...
Membrane fouling is one of the major hurdles in widespread use of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) in desalination industry. There are various factors that affect the inorganic fouling or scaling of Re...
The presence of excess fluoride in aqueous media above local environmental standards (e.g., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 4 mg/L) affects the health of aquatic life. Exc...
Several defluoridation techniques for reducing high initial fluoride concentration (IFC) in wastewater have been tested, but only a few of them have achieved the permissible standards. This study exam...
The patients who are diagnosed with idiopathic epiretinal membrane and scheduled to undergo epiretinal membrane removal will be treated with conventional vitrectomy and the epiretinal memb...
The overall goal is to identify trends and longitudinal associations in psychosocial, food-related, and cardiometabolic risk factors that can guide public health priorities and future rese...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a simplified technique of conventional dentures fabrication, comparing it to a traditional technique, by evaluating the impact...
To assess 16-year trends in undernutrition reporting and management in Switzerland
To describe time trends in the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.