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Inhaled radon from groundwater used for domestic purposes is one of the sources of natural radioactivity into indoor air. Due to uranium-bearing minerals occurrences, hydrogeochemical conditions, tectonic structures, and hydraulic circuits, the radon pathway from rocks to groundwater is quite unpredictable. High radon potential from bedrocks is not always associated with high radon levels in groundwater. Besides, inhaled radon from domestic use may also increase the exposure toindoor radon levels. This innovative methodology using hydrogeochemical conditions and groundwater flow transport was used for radon predictions in the underground to ensure safe drinking water ingestion and inhalation. This innovative radon prediction methodology is based on classic hydrogeochemical analyses (Eh-pH, Piper, Schöeller and Gibb's diagrams) and multivariate statistical analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Pearson's correlation). High dissolution of major ions does not imply high radon mobilization from rocks to groundwater. The travel time was estimated to developed a flow transport of contaminated groundwater. Radiological results show that of the 25 sampled springs, five of them contained radon concentrations above the Portuguese imposed limit (Rn = 500 Bq·L), and 16 of them with values above the WHO recommended limit (Rn = 100 Bq·L). Overall, this new approach of radon prediction showed that uranium enrichment in rocks at ideal hydrochemical conditions and emanation coefficient, and shallow circuits, are responsible for radon increasing in drinking water. The proposed approach allow to predict the areas with high radon potential groundwaters, being a tool to be used by water planners and policy makers for corrective and preventive measures in shallow groundwater flows. To safeguard clean water within the predefined deadline of Sustainable Development Goals (2030) and to ensure human health in compliance with WHO guidelines for safe drinking water, should be established priority water protection policies to reduced radon in this contaminated springs (n = 16).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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Radon. A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family and released during the decay of radium and found in soil. There is a link between exposure to radon and lung cancer.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Illnesses due to micro-organisms and chemicals in drinking water, those caused by organisms having part of their lifecycle in water or those with water-related vectors, and others spread by aerosols containing pathogens.
Water that is intended to be ingested.