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This study investigated differences between healthy bilingual participants and bilingual participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) on verbal fluency tasks. The performance of three Spanish-English bilingual speakers with traumatic brain injury was compared to the performance of 30 neurotypical bilingual speakers on tasks of category and letter verbal fluency in English and Spanish. Responses were analyzed for total number of correct productions, differences in correct productions between languages, average cluster size, total number of switches, and rates of language choice errors. The data were analyzed using predicted scores from regression equations based on neurotypical data and modified t-tests. Analyses revealed significantly lower total output than predicted by the regression equations for both task types and in both languages for one TBI participant. The same participant demonstrated significantly lower total number of switches than the neurotypical group. Two participants demonstrated higher rates of language choice errors than the neurotypical group. There were no significant differences between TBI participants and the neurotypical group for average cluster size. There were no significant differences between predicted and obtained values for differences between English and Spanish total number correct in each task type. Results are discussed in the context of individual cognitive and linguistic profiles of the TBI participants.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of communication disorders
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Conflict between Spain and the United States, arising out of Spanish policies in Cuba.
A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)
A self-governing state of the Windward Islands in the West Indies, comprising Saint Vincent and the northern islets of the Grenadines. Its capital is Kingstown. It is one of the original homes of the Carib Indians supposed to have been sighted by Columbus in 1498. It was in English hands from 1627 till held by the French 1779-83. Saint Vincent subsequently became a British possession and, with other nearby British territories, was administered by the Governor of the Windward Islands till 1959. It attained a measure of independence in 1969 but achieved full independence as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 1979. Saint Vincent was the 4th century Spanish martyr on whose feast day Columbus discovered the island. Grenadines is derived from the Spanish kingdom of Granada. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1054 & The Europa World Year Book 1993, p2441)
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