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Bacteria exhibit an amazing diversity of mechanisms controlling gene expression to both maintain essential functions and modulate accessory functions in response to environmental cues. Over the years, it has become clear that bacterial regulation of gene expression is still far from fully understood. This review focuses on antisense RNAs (asRNAs), a class of RNA regulators defined by their location in cis and their perfect complementarity with their targets, as opposed to small RNAs (sRNAs) which act in trans with only short regions of complementarity. For a long time, only few functional asRNAs in bacteria were known and were almost exclusively found on mobile genetic elements (MGEs), thus, their importance among the other regulators was underestimated. However, the extensive application of global "omics" approaches has revealed the ubiquity of asRNAs in bacteria. This review aims, first, to describe the inherent ambiguity in the existence of asRNAs in bacteria, second, to highlight their diversity and their involvement in all aspects of bacterial life by presenting a list of 67 characterized asRNAs from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Gene regulatory mechanisms
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RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.
Most human diseases are caused by production of abnormal proteins or malfunctioning proteins. Antisense therapy involves inhibiting production of these proteins. When a gene is known to cause a specific disease and the genetic sequence ...
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...