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Socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood is associated with a myriad of negative adult outcomes. One mechanism through which disadvantage undermines positive outcomes may be by disrupting the development of self-control. The goal of the present study was to examine pathways from three key indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage - low family income, low maternal education, and neighborhood poverty - to neural and behavioral measures of response inhibition. We utilized data from a representative cohort of 215 twins (ages 7-18 years, 70% male) oversampled for exposure to disadvantage, who participated in the Michigan Twins Neurogenetics Study (MTwiNS), a study within the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Our child-friendly Go/No-Go task activated the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and activation during this task predicted behavioral inhibition performance, extending prior work on adults to youth. Critically, we also found that neighborhood poverty, assessed via geocoding, but not family income or maternal education, was associated with IFG activation, a finding that we replicated in an independent sample of disadvantaged youth. Further, we found that neighborhood poverty predicted response inhibition performance via its effect on IFG activation. These results provide the first mechanistic evidence that disadvantaged contexts may undermine self-control via their effect on the brain. The broader neighborhood, beyond familial contexts, may be critically important for this association, suggesting that contexts beyond the home have profound effects on the developing brain and behaviors critical for future health, wealth, and wellbeing.
This article was published in the following journal.
The purpose of the study was to estimate the effect of exposure to neighborhood poverty in adolescence on HIV/STI prevalence in early adulthood.
Recent research demonstrates that youth fitness improvements are associated with lower absenteeism. This study assessed whether the effects of poverty on the longitudinal fitness-absenteeism relations...
Threat-related emotional function is supported by a neural circuit that includes the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and amygdala. The function of this neural circuit is altered by negative life...
Response inhibition is thought to play a critical role in the manifestation and maintenance of obesity. The study aimed to investigate the behavioral and neural correlates of food-related response inh...
Neighborhood environments are increasingly thought to affect emergency department (ED) use. However, because people decide where to live based on a range of factors, it can be challenging to identify ...
National data indicate over 650,000 children and adolescents are exposed to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse or physical or emotional neglect each year. Moreover, youth with a history ...
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and more treatments are needed, especially pharmacotherapies. There are a variety of efficacious treatments for AUD, ...
To test the independent and interrelated effects of the neighborhood social environment, the neighborhood physical environment, and individual risk factors in predicting all-cause and card...
The purpose of this research is to conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of CBT on neural responses to binge eating stimuli.
This is an add-on study to an existing multimodal neuroimaging study in MDD by investigating the acute effects of DLPFC tDCS on threat vigilance in 24-44 patients with MDD, as part of an o...
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.
The theory that infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms, and parasites are normal stimulants for the maturation of the immune system toward a balanced immune response. The theory predicts that lack of such stimulation leads to allergies and AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...