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Altered and infected cells are eliminated by CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This requires production of antigenic peptides mostly in the cytosol, transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), and cell surface presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I). Strikingly, antigen presentation occurs without TAP, although it is inefficient and associated to human pathology. TAP-independent peptides derive both from membrane and secreted proteins, as well as cytosolic ones. The efficiency of TAP-independent presentation may be impacted by the availability of receptive MHC-I, and in turn by the functional presence in the ER of the peptide-loading complex, itself anchored on TAP. Without TAP, surface expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B allotypes varies widely, with those presenting a broader peptide repertoire among the most TAP-independent. Much remains to be learned on the alternative cellular pathways for antigen presentation in the absence of TAP.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current opinion in immunology
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Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.
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