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Crustacean neuroparsins are poly-cysteine rich neuropeptides that share some similarities with the ovary ecdysteroidogenesis hormone (OEH) of mosquitoes, the N-terminal end of the growth factor binding protein region of the vertebrate and mollusk insulin-like growth factor binding protein and single insulin binding domain protein. Neuroparsins can promote reproduction and neurite outgrowth in various insects. Though many studies have been made in insects, the amount of work reported in crustaceans is still limited. This review emphasizes the neuroparsins found in decapod crustaceans with references to the neuroparsin first discovered in insects. To be more complete in identifying all the neuroparsin members and to understand the structure/function relationship within a single species, we have collected all neuroparsins from the GenBank and our transcriptome datasets. Then, we employed a comparative approach to study the sequence homology, tissue expression patterns, making predictions of their function and the evolutionary relationship particularly in decapod crustaceans. Results from alignment and phylogenetic studies indicated that the crustacean neuroparsin consist of unique feature that can be used as criteria for their classification. These features include the presence of 12 cysteine residues in the mature peptide, the strict spacing between these cysteine residues and the size of the mature peptide. Because of the limited data in the expression information, the functions of most neuroparsin are unknown. The review will focus on the site of synthesis, expression, functions, the sequence homology and the evolutionary relationship of this group of neurohormones.
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Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Organizations representing designated geographic areas which have contracts under the PRO program to review the medical necessity, appropriateness, quality, and cost-effectiveness of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. Peer Review Improvement Act, PL 97-248, 1982.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.
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