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Splicing of exon 9a in FMR1 transcripts results in a truncated FMRP with altered subcellular distribution.

07:00 EST 11th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Splicing of exon 9a in FMR1 transcripts results in a truncated FMRP with altered subcellular distribution."

FMRP is an RNA-binding protein, loss of which causes fragile X syndrome (FXS). FMRP has several isoforms resulted from alternative splicing (AS) of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, but their biological functions are still poorly understood. In the analysis of alternatively spliced FMR1 transcripts in the blood cells from a patient with FXS-like phenotypes (normal CGG repeats and no mutation in coding sequence of FMR1), we identified three novel FMR1 transcripts that include a previously unidentified microexon (46 bp), terming the exon 9a. This microexon exists widely in unaffected individuals, inclusion of which introduces an in-frame termination codon. To address whether these exon 9a-containing transcripts could produce protein by evading nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), Western blot was used to analysis blood cell lysate from unaffected individuals and a 34 kDa protein that consistent in size with the molecular weight of the predicted truncated protein produced from mRNA with this microexon was found. Meanwhile, treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with an inhibitor of NMD (Cycloheximide) did not result in significant increase in exon 9a-containing transcripts. Using confocal immunofluorescence, we found the truncated protein displayed both nuclear and cytoplasmic localization in HEK293T and HeLa cells due to lacking C-terminal domains including KH2, NES, and RGG, while the full-length FMRP protein mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Therefore, we hypothesize that the inclusion of this microexon to generate exon 9a-containing transcripts may regulate the normal functionality of FMRP, and the dysregulation of normal FMRP due to increased exon 9a-containing alternatively spliced transcripts in that patient may be associated with the manifestation of FXS phenotype.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Gene
ISSN: 1879-0038
Pages: 144359

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.

A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.

RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.

The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.

The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.

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