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Propofol is intravenously administered oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by egg lecithin phospholipids indicated for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia or sedation. It is generally assumed to be structurally homogenous as characterized by commonly used dynamic light scattering technique and laser diffraction. However, the excessive amount of egg lecithin phospholipids added to the propofol formulation may, presumably, give rise to additional formation of lipid vesicles (i.e., vesicular structures consisting of a phospholipid bilayer). In this study, we investigate the use of high-resolution cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) in morphological characterization of four commercially available propofol drug products. The TEM result, for the first time, reveals that all propofol drug products contain lipid vesicles and oil droplet-lipid vesicle aggregated structures, in addition to oil droplets. Statistical analysis shows the size and ratio of the lipid vesicles varies across four different products. To evaluate the impact of such morphological differences on active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)'s distribution, we separate the lipid vesicle phase from other constituents via ultracentrifuge fractionation and determine the amount of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicate that a nearly negligible amount of API (i.e., NMT 0.25% of labeled content) is present in the lipid vesicles and is thus primarily distributed in the oil phase. As oil droplets are the primary drug carriers and their globule size are similar, the findings of various lipid vesicle composition and sizes among different propofol products do not affect their clinical outcomes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of pharmaceutics
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A perilipin that localizes to LIPID DROPLETS; CYTOPLASM; ENDOSOMES; and PLASMA MEMBRANE, especially in MACROPHAGES. It functions as a transporter of free fatty acids to lipid droplets to promote their biogenesis and growth. It is also required for the transport of the MANNOSE-6-PHOSPHATE RECEPTOR from endosomes to the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK. Its structure consists of four helix bundles that interact with the hydrophobic lipid droplet surface.
Rare and often fatal drug complication which affects patients undergoing long-term treatment with high doses of PROPOFOL. It is characterized by METABOLIC ACIDOSIS; HYPERLIPIDEMIA; RHABDOMYOLYSIS; cardiovascular CIRCULATORY COLLAPSE; CARDIAC FAILURE; and KIDNEY FAILURE.
A perilipin that is expressed by many different cell types. It binds FATTY ACIDS and CHOLESTEROL, stabilizes TRIGLYCERIDES, and localizes to both the surface and hydrophobic core of LIPID DROPLETS, as well as the ENDOPLASMIC RECTICULUM and PLASMA MEMBRANE in MACROPHAGES. It also plays a central role in the biogenesis of lipid droplets and FOAM CELLS and is highly expressed by macrophages at atherosclerotic lesions in human arteries along with the INFLAMMATION markers TNF-ALPHA; MCP-1 RECEPTOR; and IL-6.
Proteins, such as PERILIPINS, that localize to LIPID DROPLETS either transiently or constitutively.
Dynamic cytoplasmic organelles found in almost all cells. They consist of a central core of LIPIDS surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer studded with surface proteins, and are involved in LIPID METABOLISM and storage.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...
Anesthesia is the loss of feeling or sensation in all or part of the body. It may result from damage to nerves or can be induced by an anesthetist (a medical professional) using anesthetics such as thiopental or propofol or sevoflurane during a surgical ...
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...