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Zinc is an essential micronutrient that impacts the cardiovascular system through modulation of oxidative stress. It is unknown whether zinc levels are affected in heart failure (HF), and whether the association, if present, is causal. A systematic search for publications that report coexisting zinc deficiency in HF patients was performed to provide an overview of the pathophysiological and epidemiological aspects of this association (last search April 2019). Review of the literature suggests multiple potential pathophysiologic causes for zinc deficiency in HF as a result of impaired micronutrient consumption, hyper-inflammatory state, upregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, diminished absorption, and hyperzincuria from HF medications. In a longitudinal study of patients with HF in the setting of intestinal malabsorption, there was partial cardiomyocyte and left ventricular ejection fraction recovery with intravenous selenium and zinc supplementation. Two randomized double-blind control trials evaluating micro and macro nutrient supplementation including zinc in HF patients found improvement in echocardiographic findings when compared to placebo. Two recently completed studies evaluated the role for zinc supplementation in two different HF populations: a trial of zinc supplementation in patients with non-ischemic HF, and a trial of micronutrient supplementation (including B vitamins, vitamin D, and zinc) in veterans with systolic dysfunction; the results of which are still pending. Several pathobiological pathways to link zinc deficiency with the development and deterioration of HF are presented. Preliminary clinical data are supportive of such an association and future studies should further investigate the effects of zinc supplementation on outcomes in HF patients.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of cardiac failure
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Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
An article or book published after examination of published material on a subject. It may be comprehensive to various degrees and the time range of material scrutinized may be broad or narrow, but the reviews most often desired are reviews of the current literature. The textual material examined may be equally broad and can encompass, in medicine specifically, clinical material as well as experimental research or case reports. State-of-the-art reviews tend to address more current matters. A review of the literature must be differentiated from HISTORICAL ARTICLE on the same subject, but a review of historical literature is also within the scope of this publication type.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
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