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The multifunctional protein YB-1 has previously been shown to be the only protein of the cytoplasmic extract of HEK293 cells, which is able to specifically interact with imperfect RNA hairpins containing motifs that are often found in exosomal (e) RNAs. In addition, it has been revealed that similar hairpins formed by degenerate consensus sequences corresponding to three eRNA-specific motifs are responsible for the cooperative binding of YB-1 to RNA in vitro. Here, using the photoactivatable-ribonucleoside enhancing cross-linking and immunoprecipitation method applied to HEK293 cells producing FLAG-labeled YB-1, we identified mRNAs cross-linked to YB-1 in vivo and then carried out a search for the aforementioned sequences in the regions of the YB-1 cross-linking sites. It turned out that many of the mRNAs found cross-linked to YB-1 encode proteins associated with various regulatory processes, including responses to stress. More than half of all cross-linked mRNAs contained degenerate consensus sequences, which were preferably located in 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs), where most of the YB-1 cross-linking sites appeared, although not close to these sequences. Furthermore, YB-1 was mainly cross-linked to those mRNAs with degenerate consensus sequences, which could be classified as packaged because their translation levels were low compared to cellular levels. This suggests that the cooperative binding of YB-1 to mRNAs through the above sequences probably triggers the well-known multimerization of YB-l, leading to the packaging of these mRNAs. Thus, our findings indicate a previously unknown link between the degenerate consensus sequences present in the 3'-UTRs of many cytoplasmic mRNAs and YB-1-mediated translational silencing.
This article was published in the following journal.
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An RRM protein which binds AU-rich sequences in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of mRNAs for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-FOS; CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21; and GAP-43 PROTEIN. It functions in neuron-specific RNA processing.
The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
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