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Aeromonas veronii is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes significant economic losses in the aquaculture industry. The use of probiotics in aquaculture is a practical alternative to antibiotics to promote animal health and aid in disease prevention. In the present study, we aimed to construct a recombinant Lactobacillus casei(surface-displayed or secretory) strain containing Malt from A. veronii TH0426 and assess its potential as an oral vaccine. A 1314-bp Malt gene fragment was successfully amplified and cloned into a prokaryotic protein expression system. Protein expression in resulting recombinant strains Lc-MCS-Malt (surface-displayed) and Lc-pPG-Malt (secretory) was then verified by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. A single band was observed on the Western blots, with the molecular weight of the corresponding protein shown to be 48 kDa. Furthermore, a fluorescent signal for Lc-MCS-Malt was observed by fluorescence microscopy. At 0, 7, 16, 25, and 34 days post-immunization, tissue and blood samples were collected from common carp orally administered with the recombinant L. casei strains for immune-related index analyses. Treatment of common carp with the recombinant vaccine candidate stimulated high serum or skin mucus specific antibody titers and induced a higher lysozyme, ACP, SOD activity, while fish fed with Lc-pPG or PBS had no detectable immobilizing immune responses. Expression of IL-10, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ genes in the group immunized with recombinant L. casei were significantly (P < 0.05) up regulated as compared with control groups, indicating that inflammatory response and cell immune response were triggered. Results also showed that recombinant L. casei could stimulate the mucosa through colonization of the intestine, resulting in increased transcription of IL-10, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. Immunity and colonization assays also showed that after 34 days of fasting, recombinant L. casei were still present in the intestines of the immunized fish. Common carp that received Lc-MCS-Malt(53.3%) and Lc-pPG-Malt (46.7%) exhibited higher survival rates than the controls after challenge with the pathogen A. veronii. Our findings suggested that recombinant L. casei can adequately protect fish and improve immunity, providing a theoretical basis for the future development of an oral Lactobacillus vaccine for use in aquaculture.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Microbial pathogenesis
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A species of Lactobacillus that occurs in the human ORAL MUCOSA; GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT; and VAGINA. It produces BACTERIOCINS, can modulate the immune response, and is used as a PROBIOTIC.
A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
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