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Lignin based materials and chemicals with outstanding sustainability have drawn increasingly attentions. However, the dark color of lignin limits the utilization in color-depended fields. In this work, the factors that influence the color of lignin were investigated and mechanisms were illustrated by GPC, NBO, 2D HSQC, XPS, SEM, and visible light spectrum. It is found that the condensed structures were mainly separated at higher pH due to its high molecular weight and low solubility. The condensation contributes to the conjugation and unsaturation, which resulted in the dark-color of the lignin precipitated at high pH value. The oxidation is not crucial for the color darkening of lignin in drying, it is the micro aggregation that dominantly determined the color degree. The concentration of chromophore was decreased owing to the decrease of bulk density (caused by the alleviation of aggregation), which endowed lignin with the bright seeing macroscopically. Notably, the selection of light-colored lignin needs to be individually considered regarding different use, since the dominating factors that influence the color at solid or solution are totally different. In summary, this work offers guidance for acquiring light-colored lignin and helps people select the light-colored lignin properly regarding utilizations.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of biological macromolecules
The modification of lignin to a lighter color has been a concern in lignin valorization. In the previous reports on lignin color reduction, the methods of assessing the whiteness of lignin varied from...
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The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
An order of EUKARYOTES found in the gut of termites and other insects that live on LIGNIN. MITOCHONDRIA and GOLGI APPARATUS are absent from oxymonads.
A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.