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Intestinal bacteria and bacterial metabolic products are indispensable components of both invertebrate and vertebrate physiology, directly influencing many functions including host energy absorption and metabolism, intestinal barrier integrity and immune function. To investigate the influence of rearing density on shrimp intestinal health, antioxidant responses and disease susceptibility, we simultaneously monitored the dynamic changes of intestinal bacteria and antioxidant enzymes activities in Litopenaeus vananmei under two different rearing densities (400 and 800 shrimp/m) and further investigated the difference in response to Vibrio paraheamolyticus E1 (VPE1) challenge. We showed that the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Firmicutes were the predominant microflora in all treatment groups. Rearing L. vannamei at high density for 15 days resulted in the reduction of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and increase of Planctomycetes. At the genus level, high rearing density induced reduction of Pseudoalteromonas and Blastopirellula, and an increase of Photobacterium and Vibrio. Notably, the relative abundance of Ascidiaceihabitans and Flavobacteria NS10_marine_group increased in the low rearing density groups after VPE1 challenge, suggesting that these two types of bacteria might have an important role in resisting to VPE1 infection. High density stress caused suppression of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in shrimp. Hence, high density stress altered the functional composition of shrimp intestinal bacteria and damaged the antioxidant system, which increased pathogen susceptibility.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of invertebrate pathology
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Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
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