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We explored the effect of the muscarinic receptor antagonist tolterodine on voltage-dependent K (Kv) channels using the patch-clamp technique in coronary arterial smooth muscle cells freshly isolated from rabbits. Tolterodine inhibited Kv channels in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC of 1.71 ± 0.33 μM and Hill coefficient of 0.69 ± 0.03. Tolterodine accelerated the decay rate of Kv channel inactivation. The apparent rate constants of association and dissociation for tolterodine were 1.79 ± 0.13 μMs, and 3.13 ± 0.96 s, respectively. Although 3 μM tolterodine had no effect on the steady-state activation of the Kv current, it shifted the steady-state inactivation curve towards a negative potential. Application of consecutive train steps (1 or 2 Hz) progressively decreased the Kv current and promoted its inhibition. Furthermore, the recovery time constant was augmented in the presence of tolterodine, indicating that tolterodine-induced Kv channel blockade is use (state) dependent. Pretreatment with inhibitors of the Kv1.5, Kv2.1, and Kv7 subtypes (DPO-1, guangxitoxin, and linopirdine) partially reduced the inhibitory effect of tolterodine on Kv channels. The alternative muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine did not inhibit the Kv current nor influence tolterodine-induced inhibition of the Kv current. Tolterodine induced vasoconstriction and membrane depolarization. Based on these results, we conclude that tolterodine inhibits Kv channels in concentration-, time-, and use (state)-dependent manners, irrespective of its antagonism of muscarinic receptors.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European journal of pharmacology
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