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is the causal agent for the devastating disease rice blast. The avirulence () genes in are required to initiate robust disease resistance mediated by the corresponding resistance () genes in rice. Therefore, monitoring pathogen genes is important to predict the stability of gene-mediated blast resistance. In the present study, we analyzed the DNA sequence dynamics of five genes, namely, , , , , and , in field isolates of in order to understand the effectiveness of the genes, , , , , and in the Southern U.S. rice growing region. Genomic DNA of 258 blast isolates collected from commercial fields of the Southern UNITED STATES during 1975-2009 were subjected to PCR amplification with gene-specific PCR markers. PCR products were obtained from 232 isolates. The absence of PCR products in the remaining 26 isolates suggests that these isolates do not contain the tested genes. Amplified PCR products were subsequently gel purified and sequenced. Based on the presence or absence of the five genes, 232 field isolates were classified into 10 haplotype groups. The results revealed that 174 isolates of carried , 225 isolates carried , 44 isolates carried , 3 isolates carried , and one isolate carried . was highly variable, and 40 haplotypes were identified in avirulent isolates. had four nucleotide sequence site changes resulting in amino acid substitutions, whereas three other genes, , , and , were relatively stable. Two genes, and , were found to exist in relatively larger proportions of the tested field isolates, which suggested that their corresponding genes and can be deployed in preventing blast disease in the Southern UNITED STATES in addition to . This study demonstrates that continued gene monitoring in the pathogen population is critical for ensuring the effectiveness of deployed blast genes in commercial rice fields.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Plant disease
Of all the spp., is the most common species identified in clinical specimens and is a leading agent of complicated urinary tract infection. This study was undertaken to understand the antimicrobial ...
The increasing use of polymyxins as last resort drugs for the management of infections by Acinetobacter baumannii has led to the emergence of resistance. This study aimed to determine the resistance m...
Mycoplasma hyorhinis is one of the causative agents of polyserositis and arthritis in post-weaning pigs. Here we describe the development of a multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) protocol for the chara...
serovar Typhimurium is one of the leading causes of nontyphoidal gastroenteritis of humans in the United States. Commercially processed poultry carcasses are frequently contaminated with serovar Kent...
The present study was aimed to detect the carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and intI1 gene of class 1 integron among fermenting (n=61) and non-fermenting (n=10) bacterial isolates ...
To perform a laboratory sensitivity testing survey of antibiotic agents against Neisseria gonorrhea isolates from men with symptomatic urethritis seen at an STD clinic.
The increasing use of colistin in multidrug resistant strains, as Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases or carbapenemases, is associated with the emergence of colist...
This study focus on the genetic changes of B. pertussis clinical isolates. For this panels of B. pertussis isolates has been collected during four periods in different European countries.
Rapid sequence induction (RSI) is a common part of routine anesthesiology practice. However several steps of RSI are not based on evidence based data (EBM) and are considered controversial...
The major elements of the survey were sampling, questionnaire design, field survey and database construction. This survey incorporated the multistage stratified sampling scheme. Questionna...
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...