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Although lupin anthracnose caused by is a significant threat for spring and winter lupin crops, it has been poorly studied so far. This study aimed at characterizing the (i) phylogenetic, (ii) morphological, and (iii) physiological diversity of collected isolates from anthracnose-affected lupins. The genetic identification of representative isolates ( = 71) revealed that they were all species, further confirming that lupin anthracnose is caused by this species. However, multilocus sequencing on these isolates and 16 additional reference strains of revealed a separation into two distinct genetic groups, both of them characterized by a very low genetic diversity. The diversity of morphological characteristics of a selected subset of isolates was further evaluated. To the best of our knowledge, microsclerotia production observed for some isolates has never been reported so far within the species complex. Finally, the modeling of growth responses of a subset of strains revealed the capacity of some strains to grow in vitro at 5°C. This ability was also evidenced in planta, because DNA was detectable in plants from 14 days postinoculation at 5°C onward, whereas symptoms began to appear a week later, although at a very low level. Since lupin crops are planted during winter or early spring, growth studies in vitro and in planta demonstrated the capability of the species to grow at temperatures ranging from 5 to 30°C, with an optimum close to 25°C. In this study, specific primers were also designed for real-time quantitative PCR on fungal DNA and allowed the detection of in asymptomatic field samples. These results open perspectives to detect earlier and limit the development of this pathogen in lupin crops.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Plant disease
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The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
Measurement of the temperature of a material, or of the body or an organ by various temperature sensing devices which measure changes in properties of the material that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; or LUMINESCENCE.
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The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
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