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A saline-indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) is performed without addition of enhancement media to increase the binding of antibody to the red blood cell antigen during the 37°C incubation. Although infrequently used as a primary means for antibody detection or identification, this test is useful because of the variety of possible applications in antibody identification studies. It is critical to the test sensitivity to allow enough incubation time (30-60 minutes) for maximum antibody binding to occur. The saline test can also be subject to a direct agglutination reading after immediate spin, room temperature, or incubation at 37°C before conversion to the IAT. This step allows further flexibility in assessing the reactivity of directly agglutinating allo- or autoantibodies in tests performed at 37°C or lower temperatures.
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Intraoperative assessment of the repaired mitral valve (MV) by saline testing is a standard maneuver in MV repair. Despite a growing interest in application of nonresectional techniques, the utility o...
Although saline infusion test is widely used as a confirmatory test for primary aldosteronism (PA), it is reportedly less sensitive in patients in whom aldosterone is responsive to the upright positio...
Human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) includes four different subtypes (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4). Due to genetic variations, each IgG subtype contains different isoallotypes. It was previously shown that a...
The saline infusion test (SIT) and the captopril test (CT) are widely used as conﬁrmatory tests for primary aldosteronism (PA). We hypothesized that post-SIT and post-CT plasma aldosterone concentra...
The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of indirect benefits to family members and classmates resulting from administration of influenza vaccine to children.
Data from experimental animals and human epidemiological studies have suggested that hypohydration and/or low water intake is linked to poor glucose regulation and diabetes. The aim of thi...
This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical and the radiographic success of Dycal and Vitrebond as indirect pulp treatment materials in primary molars.
While immunisation of school-age children against influenza is not recommended in Hong Kong, past experience in Japan and elsewhere suggests that immunisation of children may protect the w...
Although predicted REE calculated using the Penn state 1988 method agreed (ICC 0.61, p=0.00014) with the measured REE, all three predictive equations had a fixed bias and appeared to be in...
Hemagglutination test in which Coombs' reagent (antiglobulin, or anti-human globulin rabbit immune serum) is added to detect incomplete (non-agglutinating, univalent, blocking) antibodies coating erythrocytes. The direct test is applied to red cells which have been coated with antibody in vivo (e.g., in hemolytic disease of newborn, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and transfusion reactions). The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibody (e.g., in detection of incompatibility in cross-matching tests, detection and identification of irregular antibodies, and in detection of antibodies not identifiable by other means).
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
Intradermal injection of a heated (pasteurized) saline suspension of sarcoid tissue obtained from a sarcoid spleen or lymph node. In patients with active sarcoidosis a dusky red nodule develops slowly over the next few weeks at the injection site. Histologic examination, an essential part of the complete test, reveals sarcoid tissue.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...