Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The innate immune response induced by type I interferons (IFNs) plays a critical role in the establishment of HIV infection. IFNs are induced early in HIV infection and trigger an antiviral defense program by signaling through the IFNα/β receptor (IFNAR), which consists of two subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. Changes in IFNAR expression in HIV target cells, as well as other immune cells, could therefore have important consequences for initial HIV spread. It was previously reported that IFNAR2 expression is increased in peripheral blood CD4+ CXCR4+ T cells of HIV+ patients compared to HIV uninfected controls, suggesting that HIV infection may alter the IFN responsiveness of target cells. However, the earliest immune cells affected by HIV in vivo reside in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). To date, it remains unknown if IFNAR expression is altered in GALT immune cells in the context of HIV infection and exposure to IFNs, including the 12 IFNα subtypes. Here, we analyzed the expression of surface bound and soluble IFNAR2 on Lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) isolated from the GALT of HIV- individuals and in plasma samples of HIV+ patients. IFNAR2 expression varied between different T cells, B cells and natural killer cells, but was not altered following HIV infection. Furthermore, expression of the soluble IFNAR2a isoform was not changed in HIV+ patients compared to healthy donors, nor in LPMCs after HIV-1 infection ex vivo. Even though the 12 human IFNα subtypes trigger different biological responses and vary in their affinity to both receptor subunits, stimulation of LPMCs with different recombinant IFNα subtypes did not result in any significant changes in IFNAR2 surface expression. Our data suggests that potential changes in the IFN responsiveness of mucosal immune cells during HIV infection are unlikely dictated by changes in IFNAR2 expression.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
Immune responses are essential for pathogen elimination but also cause tissue damage, leading to disease or death. However, it is unclear how the host immune system balances control of infection and p...
The antiviral mechanism of action of iminosugars against many enveloped viruses is hypothesized to be a consequence of misfolding of viral N-linked glycoproteins through inhibition of host endoplasmic...
Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) restrict infection by several viruses, such as influenza A virus, West Nile virus and dengue virus. It has not been determined whether porcine IFIT...
The battle between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the host immune defense determines the outcome of the disease. Scavenger receptor A (SRA) is a phagocytic pattern recognition receptor involved...
Interferon lambda (IFNL) is expressed at high levels by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and mucosal immune cells in response to infection and inflammation. We investigated whether IFNL might contri...
Influenza is a virus infection that causes sickness from the nose to the lungs. It is thought that type 1 interferon (a protein that helps the immune system fight viruses) will make flu va...
The principal objective is to define and compare the viral reservoir, mucosal immune responses and the microbiota of different HIV infection stages; viremic, aviremic (under treatment), na...
The purpose of this research study is to test the safety and effectiveness of inhaled Interferon gamma-1b (IFN-g 1b), when administered for 48 weeks and in combination with oral antibiotic...
It is probable that a mucosal approach is necessary for a prophylactic HIV vaccine protecting against sexually transmitted infection. Mucosal immune responses have been almost non-existent...
This is a single site, prospective, observational study that seeks to assess changes in mucosal immunity that occur as a result of HIV-1 exposure, HSV-2 infection, and/or pre-exposure prop...
A DEAD box RNA helicase that contains two N-terminal CASPASE ACTIVATION AND RECRUITMENT DOMAINS. It functions as a sensor of viral NUCLEIC ACIDS such as DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA and activates the INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE by inducing the expression of INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA. It may also regulate cell growth and APOPTOSIS.
A ubiquitously expressed heterodimeric receptor that is specific for both INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA. It is composed of two subunits referred to as IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. The IFNAR2 subunit is believed to serve as the ligand-binding chain; however both chains are required for signal transduction. The interferon alpha-beta receptor signals through the action of JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
A family of transcription factors that share an N-terminal HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF and bind INTERFERON-inducible promoters to control GENE expression. IRF proteins bind specific DNA sequences such as interferon-stimulated response elements, interferon regulatory elements, and the interferon consensus sequence.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A multimeric complex that functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. ISGF3 is assembled in the CYTOPLASM and translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to INTERFERON signaling. It consists of ISGF3-GAMMA and ISGF3-ALPHA, and it regulates expression of many interferon-responsive GENES.
Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus, more commonly known as HIV, is a member of the lentivirus sub-set of the retrovirus family of pathogens. It causes AIDS, or Acquired Immuno Deficiency Sy...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...