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BACKGROUND Cervical cancer is a major threat to female health worldwide. This study was performed to study the anticancer potential of sclareol and as a chemo-sensitizing agent against human cervical cancer cells along with evaluating its effects on apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS MTT assay was performed to check cell viability, morphological changes were observed through phase-contrast microscopy, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) assays were performed to evaluate apoptotic effects; MMP (matrix metalloproteinase) and cell cycle analysis were examined through flow cytometry. Western blotting analysis was performed to check the protein expressions of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and apoptosis proteins. RESULTS Results depicted that both sclareol and cisplatin induced cytotoxic effects individually but when used in combination, it led to much more pronounced cytotoxic effects indicating a synergistic effect of sclareol on cisplatin. Sclareol treatment led to significant decrease in the levels of p-MEK and p-ERK. Significant morphological changes (including chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation) in cervical cancer cells were seen after treatment. Western blot showed significant alterations including increase in BAX and decrease in BCL-2 levels. An increase in the S-phase cells, indicating cell cycle arrest at S-phase was seen along with modulating the expressions of CDK-1and Cdc25C, and increase in the levels of p-CDK-1, cyclin-B1, cyclin-A, and p-Cdc25C. CONCLUSIONS Sclareol not only induced cytotoxic effects but also enhanced chemosensitivity of human cervical cancer cells towards cisplatin and these effects are mediated via MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, stimulation of apoptosis and S-phase cell cycle arrest.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
In this work, it was sought to determine if there was synergism between doxorubicin (DOX), a well-known antineoplastic, and sclareol (SC), a diterpene from natural origin, in breast cancer treatment. ...
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Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
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