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Aging is a grave problem in sepsis, and T cell exhaustion is the main cause of sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Sepsis- and aging-induced T cell exhaustion is related to secondary infection with a poor long-term outcome in the elderly. However, the trend, impact, and mechanism of T cell exhaustion are still unclear. Interleukin (IL)-15 improves survival rate of septic mice via its antiapoptotic effect on T cells; however, it is still unclear how IL-15 reverses prolonged T cell exhaustion in aged septic mice. The purpose of this study was to clarify the trend of sepsis-induced T cell exhaustion and whether IL-15 prevents aging-induced persistent T cell exhaustion in septic mice. Preserved cecal slurry was injected intraperitoneally into young (6-week-old) and aged mice (18-24-month-old) 4 times, to induce clinically relevant repeated sepsis. IL-15 (1.5 μg) or phosphate-buffered saline was injected subcutaneously 3 times, body weight was serially measured, and peripheral blood cells from their cheek were serially collected for 50 days. Sepsis-induced T cell exhaustion was significantly severe in aged mice than in young mice and was accompanied with decreased naive CD4 and CD8 T cells (P < 0.01) and increased expression of program death 1 on T cell (P < 0.01) and regulatory T cell population (P < 0.01). IL-15 significantly improved sepsis-induced T exhaustion, with significantly increased numbers of natural killer cells and macrophages, and significantly enhanced phagocytosis activity in aged septic mice (P < 0.05). It decreased the long-term mortality associated with sepsis survivors by improving T cell exhaustion over an extended duration and also ameliorated aging-induced persistent T cell exhaustion in septic mice.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
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One of the first INBRED MOUSE STRAINS to be sequenced. This strain is commonly used as genetic background for transgenic mouse models. Refractory to many tumors, this strain is also preferred model for studying role of genetic variations in development of diseases.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sepsis, septicaemia and blood poisoning
Septicaemia (another name for blood poisoning) refers to a bacterial infection of the blood, whereas sepsis can also be caused by viral or fungal infections. Sepsis is not just limited to the blood and can affect the whole body, including the organ...
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