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Tuberculosis (TB) surveillance is scarce in most African countries, even though it is the continent with the greatest disease incidence according to the World Health Organization. Liberia is within the 30 countries with the highest TB burden, probably as a consequence of the long civil war and the recent Ebola outbreak, both crippling the health system and depreciating the TB prevention and control programmes. Due to difficulties working in the country, there is a lack of resistance surveys and bacillus characterization. Here, we use genome sequencing of clinical isolates to fill this gap. Our results highlight that the bacillus population structure is dominated by lineage 4 strains that harbour an outstanding genetic diversity, higher than in the rest of Africa as a whole. Coalescent analyses demonstrate that strains currently circulating in Liberia were introduced several times beginning in the early year 600 CE until very recently coinciding with migratory movements associated with the civil war and Ebola epidemics. A higher multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB frequency (23.5 %) than current estimates was obtained together with non-catalogued drug-resistance mutations. Additionally, 39 % of strains were in genomic clusters revealing that ongoing transmission is a major contribution to the TB burden in the country. Our report emphasizes the importance of TB surveillance and control in African countries where bacillus diversity, MDR-TB prevalence and transmission are coalescing to jeopardize TB control programmes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Microbial genomics
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Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to ATP-BINDING CASSETTE, SUB-FAMILY B, MEMBER 1. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although ATP BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTER, SUB-FAMILY B share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
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