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The interior of eukaryotic cells is mysterious. How do the large communities of macromolecular machines interact with each other? How do the structures and positions of these nanoscopic entities respond to new stimuli? Questions like these can now be answered with the help of a method called electron cryotomography (cryo-ET). Cryo-ET will ultimately reveal the inner workings of a cell at the protein, secondary structure, and perhaps even side-chain levels. Combined with genetic or pharmacological perturbation, cryo-ET will allow us to answer previously unimaginable questions, such as how structure, biochemistry, and forces are related in situ. Because it bridges structural biology and cell biology, cryo-ET is indispensable for structural cell biology-the study of the 3-D macromolecular structure of cells. Here we discuss some of the key ideas, strategies, auxiliary techniques, and innovations that an aspiring structural cell biologist will consider when planning to ask bold questions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular biology of the cell
Proteasomes are essential in all eukaryotic cells. However, their function and regulation remain considerably elusive, particularly those of less abundant variants. We demonstrate the human 20S protea...
Cryo-focussed ion beam (FIB)-milling of biological samples can be used to generate thin electron-transparent slices from cells grown or deposited on EM grids. These so called cryo-lamellae allow high-...
Cells are powered by a large set of macromolecular complexes, which work together in a crowded environment. The in situ mechanisms of these complexes are unclear because their 3D distribution, organiz...
Not long after the invention of transmission electron microscope (TEM), phase plate was proposed as a novel electron-optical apparatus at the back-focal plane of the objective lens to modulate the mag...
Many bacteria interact with target organisms using syringe-like structures called contractile injection systems (CISs). CISs structurally resemble headless bacteriophages and share evolutionarily rela...
RATIONALE: Cryotherapy kills tumor cells by freezing them. Giving an injection of GM-CSF before cryotherapy and inhaling GM-CSF after cryotherapy may interfere with the growth of tumor cel...
the purpose of this study is to evaluate the cryotherapy effect by vapocoolant spray to reducing pain during puncture for artérial blood gas
To determine the safety and efficacy of trans-scleral cryotherapy of the peripheral retina in certain low birth-weight infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) for reducing blindness ...
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as carboplatin, etoposide, and vincristine, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping...
RATIONALE: Cryotherapy kills tumor cells by freezing them. Giving cryotherapy before surgery may kill more tumor cells. PURPOSE: This phase I trial is studying how well cryotherapy works ...
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.
A eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 40S ribosomal subunits. Although initially considered a "non-essential" factor for eukaryotic transcription initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor-1 is now thought to play an important role in localizing RIBOSOMES at the initiation codon of MRNA.
A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...