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Topological photonics provides an ideal platform for demonstrating novel band topology concepts, which are also promising for robust waveguiding, communication and computation applications. However, many challenges such as extremely large device footprint and functionality at short wavelengths remain to be solved which are required to make practical and useful devices that can also couple to electronic excitations in many important organic and inorganic semiconductors. In this letter, we report an experimental realization of Z2 photonic topological insulators with their topological edge state energies spanning across the visible wavelength range including in the sub-500 nm regime, which requires highly optimized nanofabrication. The photonic structures are based on deformed hexagonal lattices with preserved six-fold rotational symmetry patterned on suspended SiNx membranes. The experimentally measured energy-momentum dispersion of the topological lattices directly show topological band inversion by the swapping of the brightness of the bulk energy bands, and also the helical edge states when the measurement is taken near the topological interface. The robust topological transport of the helical edge modes in real space is demonstrated by successfully guiding circularly polarized light beams unidirectionally through sharp kinks without significant signal loss. This work paves the way for small footprint photonic topological devices working in the short wavelength range that can also be utilized to couple to excitons for unconventional light-matter interactions at the nanoscale.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nano letters
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Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
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