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For chemical modification of cysteines in a protein, the regioselectivity among cysteine residues on the protein surface is an issue to be considered. To elucidate the determinants of cysteine reactivities on protein surfaces, we have investigated the chemical modification of the adenylate kinase A55C/C77S/V169C mutant as an experimental model. Although Cys55 and Cys169 are commonly located on the protein surface, Cys55 showed the 3-6 fold higher reactivity compared to Cys169 in a reaction with a pyrene derivative. By a further conjugation of a phenanthroline derivative into the vacant Cys thiol, fluorescence quenching was attained by a pyrene-phenanthroline interaction occurred by the conformational change of the protein. The K50A mutation further enhanced the regioselectivity of pyrene conjugation in Cys55, which is attributed to the effects of structural flexibility in the vicinity of Cys55 on the its reactivity. To regioselectivity conjugate different types of synthetic molecule onto the surface of a protein, perturbation in the local structural flexibility around the conjugation sites will be a useful strategy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Bioconjugate chemistry
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A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.
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