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The freezing-induced acceleration of bromate reduction by humic substances (HS) contributes to HS bromination and organobromine compounds (OBCs) formation. Herein, we report the enhanced reduction of bromate by dissolved organic matter and the formation of large amounts of OBCs in freezing solutions. After 48 h of freezing process, 78.1-100% of bromate was reduced by DOM at different initial concentrations of bromate and DOM in acidic solutions (pH 3 and 4). Bromide was one of the main reduction products, and it accounted for 30.9%-47.8% of the total bromine content. Except for bromide, a large amount of OBCs formed by brominating DOM with reactive bromine species like hypobromite was detected. The conversion of bromate to OBCs, calculated as the total organobromine content to initial bromate content, ranged from 28.2% to 52.5% and was mainly dependent on bromate/DOM content. About 110-603 species of OBCs were detected by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), and they were primarily highly unsaturated and phenolic compounds. By analyzing the spectral variation before and after freezing process, we found the disappearance of 900 compounds only containing C, H and O (CHOs) with low carbon oxidation state that was regarded as the main reductants of bromate. Our findings call for further investigation of the processes and effects of bromate formation in aqueous environments.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
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