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Zwitterionic modifications of glycans, such as phosphorylcholine and phosphoethanolamine are known from a range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic species and are recognised by mammalian antibodies and pentraxins; however, defined saccharide ligands modified with these zwitterionic moieties for high throughput studies are lacking. In the present study, we prepared and tested example mono- and disaccharides 6-substituted with either phosphorylcholine or phosphoethanolamine as bovine serum albumin neoglycoconjugates or printed in a microarray format for subsequent assessment of their binding to lectins, pentraxins and antibodies. C-reactive protein and anti-phosphorylcholine antibodies bound specifically to ligands with phosphorylcholine, but recognition by concanavalin A was abolished or reduced as compared to the corresponding non-zwitterionic compounds. Furthermore, in array format, the phosphorylcholine-modified ligands were recognised by IgG and IgM in sera of either non-infected or nematode-infected dogs and pigs. Thereby, these new compounds are defined ligands to allow the assessment of glycan-bound phosphorylcholine as a target of both the innate and adaptive immune systems in mammals.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS chemical biology
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Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
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A DNA microarray or biochip is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface used to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome.