Evaluation of serum neurofilament light chains levels for diagnosis, treatment monitoring and prognosis in multiple sclerosis.

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Summary of "Evaluation of serum neurofilament light chains levels for diagnosis, treatment monitoring and prognosis in multiple sclerosis."

Pathophysiological processes in multiple sclerosis frequently not diagnosed by clinicians become available for analysis only on the basis of paraclinical data (biomarkers). Nowadays neurofilament light chain can be defined as a promising biomarker for multiple sclerosis (MS). Neurofilaments are a structural part of normal neuronal processes consisting of light, intermediate and heavy chains. However, a damage of neurons such as neurodegeneration or axonal damage causes the escape of neurofilaments into extracellular space. Cutting-edge highly sensitive methods make it possible to detect neurofilament light chains not only in the cerebrospinal fluid but also in the blood serum thus opening the opportunities to utilize them in routine diagnosis in clinical practice. This review comprises existing data on the possible opportunities for research of serum neurofilament light chains in terms of exacerbations, effectiveness of basic therapy, assessment of individual disability, the atrophy of central nervous system structures. Also, there is some information on comparison of two methods: routine MRI of the brain with the contrast agents and detection of serum neurofilament light chains.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova
ISSN: 1997-7298
Pages: 7-13


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)

Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.

The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.

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A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.

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