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Treatment studies of major depression commonly focus on symptoms, leaving aside change in putative psychological risk factors. This pilot study examines the relationship between changes in eight depressive defenses and depressive symptoms. Twelve adults with acute recurrent major depression were given antidepressive medications and randomized to 20 sessions of either cognitive behavioral therapy or dynamic psychotherapy and followed for 1 year. Defenses were assessed using the Defense Mechanism Rating Scales (DMRS) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) at intake, termination, and 1-year follow-up. Depression improved highly significantly on both the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Beck Depression Inventory, respectively, eight (67%) and nine (75%) patients attained recovery by 1 year. Depressive defenses improved significantly by termination (mean ES = 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-2.16), but retrogressed somewhat by 1 year. A mean of 12.17% (SD = 10.60) depressive defenses remained; only five subjects (50%) attained normative levels. Although causal relationships were not established, depressive defenses are promising candidates for mediating treatment effects on outcome of major depression.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of nervous and mental disease
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Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.
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