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Soft tissue tumors with GLI1 gene fusions or amplifications have been recently described as a unique pathologic entity with an established risk of malignancy. We herein expand these findings by investigating a cohort of 11 head and neck lesions with GLI1 alterations, including 8 from the tongue, for their clinicopathologic and molecular features. The tumors commonly affected males in their 30s (male:female ratio 2.7:1; range: 1 to 65). Tumors showed a multinodular growth pattern, nested architecture separated by a delicate, arborizing vascular network, monotonous round to ovoid nuclei, and clear cytoplasm. Tumor protrusion into vascular spaces was common. Genetic alterations were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or targeted RNA sequencing. Seven tumors harbored GLI1 fusions with the following partners: ACTB (n=4), PTCH1 (n=2), or MALAT1 (n=1). The remaining 4 cases showed coamplifications of GLI1 with CDK4 and MDM2 genes. Tumors were commonly positive for S100 protein and CD56. CDK4, MDM2, and STAT6 were positive in GLI1-amplified tumors. Two of 6 patients with available follow-up (1 each with GLI1 amplification and PTCH1-GLI1 fusion) developed distant metastases. Both tumors showed a high mitotic index and tumor necrosis. The head and neck region, particularly tongue, is a common location for GLI1-related mesenchymal tumors. Although a morphologic overlap was noted with the previously reported "pericytoma with t(7,12) translocation," often occurring in the tongue, our findings expand the original findings, to include a more variable immunophenotype, propensity for late distant metastases, and alternative mechanisms of GLI1 oncogenic activation, such as various GLI1 fusion partners or GLI1 coamplifications with MDM2 and CDK4 genes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The American journal of surgical pathology
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Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
A nuclear protein and tumor suppressor that contains a C-terminal PHD ZINC FINGER. It is expressed in different isoforms in various tissues and interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 to negatively regulate cell growth. Reduced expression and chromosomal rearrangements of the ING1 gene are associated with different cancers including HEAD AND NECK NEOPLASMS.
Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
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