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The association between tea drinking and esophageal cancer is still contradictory. This study is to determine the association between tea drinking and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma focusing on drinking temperature and tea types. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a high esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk area in China. A total of 942 incident esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases with historical confirmation and 942 age- and sex- individually matched community controls were recruited from the study area. Trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire collected detailed information on tea drinking, diet, smoking and alcohol drinking habits. Habitual tea drinking temperature was measured with a thermometer during interviews. We analyzed the association between tea consumption, drinking temperature and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, stratified by tea type, while adjusting for other potentially confounding factors. Drinking very hot tea (>65°C) was significantly associated with the increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio = 1.67, 95% confidential interval 1.25-2.24) relative to non-drinkers. Consumption of black tea, irrespective of the frequency, intensity and tea leaf amount, was significantly associated with a higher risk (P for trend <0.01). Compared to those who consumed <300 g/month tea leaves at ≤65°C, those who consumed more than 300 g/month tea leave at >65°C had a more than 1.8-fold higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma for both green tea and black tea. Our results provide more evidence that drinking very hot tea (above 65°C) are significantly associated with an increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
This article was published in the following journal.
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Consumption of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES by persons under the legal drinking age.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
There are three main types of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma, or BCC, is a cancer of the basal cells at the bottom of the epidermis. It’s very common ...