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Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia.

07:00 EST 2nd January 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia."

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare congenital arrhythmogenic disorder induced by physical or emotional stress. It mainly affects children and younger adults and is characterized by rapid polymorphic and bidirectional ventricular tachycardia. Symptoms can include dizziness, palpitations, and presyncope, which may progress to syncope, hypotonia, convulsive movements, and sudden cardiac death. CPVT is the result of perturbations in Ca ion handling in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiac myocytes. Mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor gene and the calsequestrin isoform 2 gene are most commonly seen in familial CPVT patients. Under catecholaminergic-stimulation, either mutation can result in an excess Ca load during diastole resulting in delayed afterdepolarizations and subsequent arrhythmogenesis. The current first-line treatment for CPVT is β-blocker therapy. Other therapeutic interventions that can be used in conjunction with β-blockers include moderate exercise training, flecainide, left cardiac sympathetic denervation, and implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Several potential therapeutic interventions including verapamil, dantrolene, JTV519, and gene therapy are also discussed.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Cardiology in review
ISSN: 1538-4683
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).

A malignant form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that is characterized by HEART RATE between 200 and 250 beats per minute, and QRS complexes with changing amplitude and twisting of the points. The term also describes the syndrome of tachycardia with prolonged ventricular repolarization, long QT intervals exceeding 500 milliseconds or BRADYCARDIA. Torsades de pointes may be self-limited or may progress to VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION.

Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.

Cardiac electrical stimulators that apply brief high-voltage electroshocks to the HEART. These stimulators are used to restore normal rhythm and contractile function in hearts of patients who are experiencing VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION or ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) that is not accompanied by a palpable PULSE. Some defibrillators may also be used to correct certain noncritical dysrhythmias (called synchronized defibrillation or CARDIOVERSION), using relatively low-level discharges synchronized to the patient's ECG waveform. (UMDNS, 2003)

A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia characterized by an extremely rapid, hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (150-300 beats/min) with a large oscillating sine-wave appearance. If untreated, ventricular flutter typically progresses to VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION.

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