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Rank orders have been studied in evolutionary biology for almost a hundred years. Constraints on the order in which mutations accumulate are known from cancer drug treatment, and order constraints for species invasions are important in ecology. However, current theory on rank orders in biology is somewhat fragmented. Here we show how our previous work on inferring genetic interactions from comparative fitness data (Crona et al., 2017) is related to an influential approach to rank orders based on sign epistasis. Our approach depends on order perturbations that indicate interactions. We apply our results to malaria parasites and find that order perturbations beyond sign epistasis are prevalent for the antimalarial drug resistance landscape. This finding agrees with the observation that reversed evolution back to the ancestral type is difficult. Another application concerns bacteria adapting to a methanol environment.
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We define phylosystemics, a multidisciplinary strategy uniting short timescale interaction studies from systems biologists and ecologists with the longer timescale studies familiar to evolutionary bio...
Recent technological advances have expanded and increased the resolution of studies in evolutionary biology, creating a need for a modern textbook that highlights the latest developments in the field....
The microbiota thriving at the root-soil interface plays a crucial role in supporting plant growth, development and health. The interactions between plant and soil microbes can be traced back to the i...
The spatial organization of digestion, which corresponds to the steps by which the ingested food is hydrolyzed in the different regions of the gut, was described in insects from the major insect order...
The explanation for the continued existence of sex, despite its many costs, remains one of the major challenges of evolutionary biology. Previous experimental studies have demonstrated that sex increa...
This is a fully automated randomized trial with two randomization branch-points. The first is inclusion of disease-specific orders in the admission orders based on a predictive model using...
The investigators' study seeks to explore the impact of price information on physicians' ordering behavior and care quality. The investigators will evaluate the impact of the physician pri...
First rank symptoms are core symptoms of schizophrenia. the investigators want to offer an integrative approach to better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the first rank symptom...
The aim of this study is to determine whether receiving a core letter signed by the Surgeon General or the Director of the National Vaccine Program that provides only information about inf...
The goal of the study is to determine whether clinical decision support (CDS) for radiology affects the number, type, or appropriateness of targeted high-cost radiology imaging orders (i.e...
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
Instructions issued by a physician pertaining to the institution, continuation, or withdrawal of life support measures. The concept includes policies, laws, statutes, decisions, guidelines, and discussions that may affect the issuance of such orders.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...