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Degradation of engulfed mitochondria is rate-limiting in Optineurin-mediated mitophagy in neurons.

07:00 EST 14th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Degradation of engulfed mitochondria is rate-limiting in Optineurin-mediated mitophagy in neurons."

Mitophagy, the selective removal of damaged mitochondria, is thought to be critical to maintain neuronal homeostasis. Mutations of proteins in the pathway cause neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting defective mitochondrial turnover contributes to neurodegeneration. In primary rat hippocampal neurons, we developed a mitophagy induction paradigm where mild oxidative stress induced low levels of mitochondrial damage. Mitophagy-associated proteins were sequentially recruited to depolarized mitochondria followed by sequestration into autophagosomes. The localization of these mitophagy events had a robust somal bias. In basal and induced conditions, engulfed mitochondria remained in non-acidified organelles for hours to days, illustrating efficient autophagosome sequestration but delayed lysosomal fusion or acidification. Furthermore, expression of an ALS-linked mutation in the pathway disrupted mitochondrial network integrity and this effect was exacerbated by oxidative stress. Thus, age-related decline in neuronal health or expression of disease-associated mutations in the pathway may exacerbate the slow kinetics of neuronal mitophagy, leading to neurodegeneration.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: eLife
ISSN: 2050-084X
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.

Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

UBIQUITIN-like modifier proteins that function in CYTOPLASM to VACUOLE transport (Cvt), vesicle transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and AUTOPHAGOSOME biogenesis. They are also required for selective autophagic degradation of the nucleus (nucleophagy) and MITOPHAGY.

Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.

An inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, the rate limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway.

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