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Mitophagy, the selective removal of damaged mitochondria, is thought to be critical to maintain neuronal homeostasis. Mutations of proteins in the pathway cause neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting defective mitochondrial turnover contributes to neurodegeneration. In primary rat hippocampal neurons, we developed a mitophagy induction paradigm where mild oxidative stress induced low levels of mitochondrial damage. Mitophagy-associated proteins were sequentially recruited to depolarized mitochondria followed by sequestration into autophagosomes. The localization of these mitophagy events had a robust somal bias. In basal and induced conditions, engulfed mitochondria remained in non-acidified organelles for hours to days, illustrating efficient autophagosome sequestration but delayed lysosomal fusion or acidification. Furthermore, expression of an ALS-linked mutation in the pathway disrupted mitochondrial network integrity and this effect was exacerbated by oxidative stress. Thus, age-related decline in neuronal health or expression of disease-associated mutations in the pathway may exacerbate the slow kinetics of neuronal mitophagy, leading to neurodegeneration.
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The accumulation of damaged mitochondria causes the death of dopaminergic neurons. The Parkin-mediated mitophagy pathway functions to remove these mitochondria from cells. Targeting this pathway repre...
Paternal mitochondria are eliminated following fertilization by selective autophagy, but the mechanisms that restrict this process to sperm-derived organelles are not well understood. FUNDC1 (FUN14 do...
Mitochondrial homeostasis vitally depends on mitophagy, the programmed degradation of mitochondria. The roster of proteins known to participate in mitophagy remains small. We devised here a multidimen...
Mitophagy is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy. Methods to study mitophagy in neurons is of increasing importance as neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's...
Mitophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular process which selectively eliminates dysfunctional mitochondria by targeting them to the autophagosome for degradation. Dysregulated mitophagy results...
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The objective of this research protocol is to continue investigation of the nature and prevalence of mitochondria disease and to aid patients and health care providers in the understanding...
Protein requirements in individuals who participate in endurance-based exercise training have been suggested to be greater than the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA). The biolog...
Data about human cardiac mitochondria are cruelly lacking in the literature. However, damages of the activity of these organelles are often the source of abnormal cardiac function in sever...
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 22.214.171.124.) EC 126.96.36.199.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
UBIQUITIN-like modifier proteins that function in CYTOPLASM to VACUOLE transport (Cvt), vesicle transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and AUTOPHAGOSOME biogenesis. They are also required for selective autophagic degradation of the nucleus (nucleophagy) and MITOPHAGY.
Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.
An inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, the rate limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway.
Stress is caused by your perception of situations around you and then the reaction of your body to them. The automatic stress response to unexpected events is known as 'fight or flight'. Discovered by Walter Cannon in 1932, it is the release of h...
Adhd Anorexia Depression Dyslexia Mental Health Psychiatry Schizophrenia Stress Mental health, although not being as obvious as physical health, is very important, causing great unhappiness to those affected, causing add...