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To determine if a 12-week yoga intervention (YI) was associated with increased gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and decreased depressive symptoms in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD). : Subjects were randomized to a high-dose group (HDG) of three YIs a week and a low-dose group (LDG) of two YIs a week. Thalamic GABA levels were obtained using magnetic resonance spectroscopy at Scan-1 before randomization. After the assigned 12-week intervention, Scan-2 was obtained, immediately followed by a YI and Scan-3. Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) scores were obtained before Scan-1 and Scan-3. Screenings and interventions occurred at the Boston University Medical Center. Imaging occurred at McLean Hospital. Subjects met criteria for MDD. Ninety minutes of Iyengar yoga and coherent breathing at five breaths per minute plus homework. GABA levels and the BDI-II. BDI-II scores improved significantly in both groups. GABA levels from Scan-1 to Scan-3 and from Scan-2 to Scan-3 were significantly increased in the LDG ( = 15) and showed a trend in the total cohort. , participants were divided into two groups based on having an increase in GABA levels at Scan-2. Increases in Scan-2 GABA levels were observed in participants whose mean time between their last YI and Scan-2 was 3.93 ± 2.92 standard deviation (SD) days, but not in those whose mean time between their last YI and Scan-2 was 7.83 ± 6.88 SD. This study tentatively supports the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms through which yoga improves mood is by increasing the activity of the GABA system. The observed increase in GABA levels following a YI that was no longer observed 8 days after a YI suggests that the associated increase in GABA after a YI is time limited such that at least one YI a week may be necessary to maintain the elevated GABA levels.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.)
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Drugs that bind to but do not activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID or GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID agonists.
An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 220.127.116.11.
An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 18.104.22.168.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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