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Heart Rate Variability (HRV) represents cardiac autonomic behavior and have been related to menopausal symptoms, mainly vasomotor symptoms and their imbalance to cardiovascular risk. It is not clear in the literature which index represents this imbalance and what is their involvement with the menopausal state. The aim of this study was to evaluate HRV in menopausal transition and post-menopausal symptoms with different intensities. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Rio Branco, State of Acre, Brazil from October 2016 to July 2017. We used Kupperman-Blatt Menopausal Index (KMI) to measure menopausal symptoms intensity. HRV analysis was performed based on the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. HRV is lower in the group with moderate/intense menopausal symptoms compared to mild symptoms. (
p = 0.005, Cohen's d = 0.53, pNN50: p = 0.0004, Cohen's d = 0.68;
p = 0.024, Cohen's d = 0.44). There was association between HRV and KMI (
r = -1.248, p = 0.004; and pNN50: r = -0.615, p: 0.029) in inverse relation to the intensity of vasomotor symptoms in women in TM. In conclusion, HRV was able to distinguish menopausal symptoms, indicating reduced vagal control in women with more intense symptoms.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225866.].
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Expenditure of energy during physical activities. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Controlled physical activity, more strenuous than at rest, which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used. The intensity of exercise is often graded, using criteria such as rate of work done, oxygen consumption, and heart rate.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
Methods, techniques, and processes by which HEART RATE is measured.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
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