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The recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 technology has revolutionized the genome engineering field. Since 2016, increasing number of studies regarding CRISPR therapeutics have entered clinical trials, most of which are focusing on the ex vivo genome editing. In this review, we highlight the ex vivo cell-based CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing for therapeutic applications. In these studies, CRISPR/Cas9 tools were used to edit cells in vitro and the successfully edited cells were considered as therapeutics, which can be introduced into patients to treat diseases. Considering a large number of previous reviews have been focused on the CRISPR/Cas9 delivery methods and materials, this review provides a different perspective, by mainly introducing the targeted conditions and design strategies for ex vivo CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutics. Brief descriptions of the history, functionality, and applications of CRISPR/Cas9 systems will be introduced first, followed by the design strategies and most significant results from previous research that used ex vivo CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing for the treatment of conditions or diseases. The last part of this review includes general information about the status of CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutics in clinical trials. We also discuss some of the challenges as well as the opportunities in this research area.
This article was published in the following journal.
During the past decade, developments in genome editing technology have fundamentally transformed biomedical research. In particular, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been extensively applied because of its ...
CRISPR-Cas9 systems provide powerful tools for genome editing. However, optimal employment of this technology will require control of Cas9 activity so that the timing, tissue specificity, and accuracy...
CRISPR Cas9 genome editing allows researchers to modify genes in a multitude of ways including to obtain deletions, epitope-tagged loci, and knock-in mutations. Within 6 years of its initial applicat...
Genome editing in eukaryotes has greatly improved through the application of targeted editing tools. The development of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology has facilitated genome editing in mammalian cells. H...
CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR associated Cas9)-based gene editing is a robust tool for functional genomics research and breeding programs in various crop...
This is an open-label and triple cohort study of the safety and efficacy of TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 to possibly treat HPV Persistency and human cervical intraepithelial neoplasiaⅠwithout i...
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the safety, tolerability and effect on leukocyte and plasma iduronidase (IDUA) enzyme activity of ascending doses of SB-318. SB-318 is an intravenou...
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the safety, tolerability and effect on leukocyte and plasma Iduronate 2-Sulfatase (IDS) enzyme activity of ascending doses of SB-913. SB-913 is an i...
The investigators performed this study to evaluate the safety and feasibility of transplantation with CRISPR/Cas9 CCR5 gene modified CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells for patients ...
Starting from isolating primary cells from affected patients, an in vitro disease model system for KS will be developed. Using alternative strategies to obtain patient-derived mesenchymal ...
Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. They include DNA HELICASES; RNA-BINDING PROTEINS; ENDONUCLEASES; and RNA and DNA POLYMERASES.
Genetic engineering techniques that involve DNA REPAIR mechanisms for incorporating site-specific modifications into a cell's genome.
An APOBEC deaminase catalytic subunit of the apolipoprotein B (APOB) MESSENGER RNA (mRNA) editing enzyme complex that is involved in post-transcriptional editing of a CAA codon for GLYCINE to a UAA STOP CODON in the ApoB mRNA. It also functions in CGA (ARGININE) to UGA STOP CODON editing of NEUROFIBROMIN 1 mRNA and EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Clinical trials are a set of procedures in medical research conducted to allow safety (or more specifically, information about adverse drug reactions and adverse effects of other treatments) and efficacy data to be collected for health interventions (e.g...