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The role of deep breaths in ultrasonic vocal production of Sprague Dawley rats.

07:00 EST 22nd January 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "The role of deep breaths in ultrasonic vocal production of Sprague Dawley rats."

Deep breaths are one of three breathing patterns in rodents characterized by an increased tidal volume. While humans incorporate deep breaths into vocal behavior, it was unknown whether nonhuman mammals use deep breaths for vocal production. We have utilized subglottal pressure recordings in awake, spontaneously behaving male Sprague Dawley rats in five contexts: sleep, rest, noxious stimulation, exposure to a female in estrus, and exposure to an unknown male. Deep breaths were produced at rates ranging between 17.5 and 90.3 deep breaths per hour. While overall breathing and vocal rates were higher in social and noxious contexts, the rate of deep breaths was only increased during the male's interaction with a female. Results inform also our understanding of vocal-respiratory integration in rats. The rate of deep breaths that were associated with a vocalization during the exhalation phase increased with vocal activity. The proportion of deep breaths that were associated with a vocalization (on average 22%) were similar to the proportion of sniffing or eupnea breaths that contain a vocalization. Therefore, vocal motor patterns appear to be entrained to the prevailing breathing rhythm, i.e. vocalization uses the available breathing pattern rather than recruiting a specific breathing pattern. Furthermore, the pattern of a deep breath was different when it was associated with a vocalization suggesting that motor planning occurs. Finally, deep breaths are a source for acoustic variation; for example, call duration and fundamental frequency modulation were both larger in 22 kHz calls produced following a deep inhalation.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Journal of neurophysiology
ISSN: 1522-1598
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.

A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.

Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.

The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections of echoes of pulses of ultrasonic waves directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.

An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.

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