Widespread non-modular overlapping codes in the coding regions.

07:00 EST 27th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Widespread non-modular overlapping codes in the coding regions."

Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) consist of a coding region (open reading frame, ORF) and two untranslated regions (5'/3' untranslated regions, 5'UTR/3'UTR). Ribosomes travel along the coding region, translating nucleotide triplets (called codons) to a chain of amino acids. The coding region was long believed to mainly encode the amino acid content of proteins, whereas regulatory signals reside in the UTRs and in other genomic regions. However, in recent years we have learned that the ORF is expansively populated with various regulatory signals, or codes, which are related to all gene expression steps and additional intracellular aspects. In this paper, we review the current knowledge related to overlapping codes inside the coding regions, such as the influence of synonymous codon usage on translation speed (and, in turn, the effect of translation speed on protein folding), ribosomal frameshifting, mRNA stability, methylation, splicing, transcription and more. All these codes come together and overlap in the ORF sequence, ensuring production of the right protein at the right time.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Physical biology
ISSN: 1478-3975


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [7643 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Phylogenetic analysis provides insights into the evolution of Asian fireflies and adult bioluminescence.

Fireflies are one of the best-known examples of luminescent organisms. The limited geographic distribution and rarity of some firefly genera have hindered molecular phylogenetic analysis, resulting in...

Variability in Current Procedural Terminology Codes for Craniomaxillofacial Trauma Reconstruction: A National Survey.

Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes are an important part of surgical documentation and billing for services provided within the United States. This limited coding language presents a challenge...

Regions of the brain activated in bladder filling vs rectal distention in healthy adults: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

Adults with pelvic floor disorders commonly present with overlapping bladder and bowel symptoms; however, the relationship between urinary and defecatory dysfunction is not well understood. Our aim wa...

Quality of cause-of-death data in Brazil: Garbage codes among registered deaths in 2000 and 2015.

reliability of mortality data is essential for health assessment and planning. In Brazil, a high proportion of deaths is attributed to causes that should not be considered as underlying causes of deat...

Disrupted brain structural connectivity in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder with psychosis.

Bipolar disorder (BD) has been linked to disrupted structural and functional connectivity between prefrontal networks and limbic brain regions. Studies of patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD...

Clinical Trials [1620 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Evaluation of a Bio-inspired Coding Strategy for Cochlear Implant Users

This study will determine the facilitation, refractoriness and spatial spread effects of auditory nerve fiber responses to electrical stimulation via a cochlear implant. The performance o...

User Evaluation of Advanced Personalized Modular Pressure Relief Seating Cushion Systems

30 Veterans who are full-time wheelchair users will use personalized modular cushions for two weeks each. Personalized cushions will be created using a cushion fitting process the investig...

A Retro-prospective Study of Total Hip Arthroplasty With EMPERION Modular Primary Stem in Australian Centres (HISTORIC)

This is a retro-prospective, single arm, sequential enrolment study to collect relevant clinical and radiological data in at least 156 subjects, at up to 10 sites in Australia, who have be...

ExploR™ Modular Radial Head Data Collection

The purpose of this prospective clinical data collection is to document the performance and clinical outcomes of the ExploR Modular Radial Head.

Clinical Evaluation of the Integra® Titan™ Modular Shoulder System Generation 2.5 for Primary Shoulder Joint Replacement

A post market, prospective, non-randomized, multi-center, open-label, clinical study using survivorship as the reference performance goal to study the safety and efficacy of the Titan Modu...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.

Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.

Uniform method for health care providers and medical suppliers to report professional services, procedures, and supplies. It consists of alphanumeric codes and modifiers for the use of all public and private health insurers. It is developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.

Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.

DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Quick Search

DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topic

Gene Expression
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...

Searches Linking to this Article