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Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, signature type 2 cytokines, exert their actions by binding to two types of receptors sharing the IL-4R α chain (IL-4Rα). Since IL-4 and IL-13 play important and redundant roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, blocking both the IL-4 and IL-13 signals would be a powerful and effective strategy for treating allergic diseases. Dupilumab (Dupixent®) is a fully human monoclonal antibody recognizing IL-4Rα and blocking both the IL-4 and IL-13 signals. Dupilumab was first prescribed for atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and has been widely approved for adult patients with moderate to severe AD since 2018. Dupilumab has since been used for asthma, receiving approval for uncontrolled asthma in 2019. A phase 3 study using dupilumab for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) has been just completed, with positive results. Several clinical trials of dupilumab for other diseases in which type 2 inflammation is dominant are now underway. It is hoped that dupilumab will open the door to a new era for treating allergic patients with AD, asthma, and CRSwNP, and for more patients with type 2 inflammations.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Allergology international : official journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
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A group of 7 proteins produced from a single gene by alternate splicing found in central and peripheral nervous system myelin. The major basic protein (MBP) has long been of interest because it is the antigen, that, when injected into an animal, elicits a cellular immune response that produces the CNS autoimmune disease called experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ALLERGIC). In the peripheral nervous system, myelin basic protein 18.5-kDa is often referred to as the P1 protein. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 5th ed, p130, 133)
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. It was established in 1948.
A positively charged protein found in peripheral nervous system myelin. Sensitive immunological techniques have demonstrated that P2 is expressed in small amounts of central nervous system myelin sheaths of some species. It is an antigen for experimental allergic neuritis (NEURITIS, EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC), the peripheral nervous system counterpart of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 5th ed, p133)
A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.
Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
Eczema is a common itchy skin disease characterized by reddening and vesicle formation, which may lead to weeping and crusting. It is endogenous, or constitutional. There are five main types; atopic, seborrhoeic, discoid, gravitational or varicose. ...