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Each year, a hand fracture is diagnosed in 24.2 of 100,000 children in Canada. Hand injuries are the most common fractures in children, making up approximately one fifth of all pediatric fractures. The incidence of hand fractures peaks between the ages of 10 and 14 years, with the highest frequencies observed among adolescent males. These increased frequencies coincide with the age at which most children begin playing contact sports, with sport-related injuries found to be the largest cause of adolescent fractures. The fifth digit is the most commonly injured digit, followed by the thumb. Phalangeal fractures constitute approximately 65% of pediatric hand fractures. Metacarpal fractures account for approximately 35% of pediatric and adolescent hand fractures, with 100 of every 100,000 children sustaining a fracture of the metacarpals. The decision to operate is related to many factors and depends on the age of the child and the location and nature of the fracture. The remodeling potential of pediatric bones factors largely into this decision because the phalangeal physis can contribute to bone growth and realignment via remodeling.
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Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)
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