Atypical lateralization in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders: What is the role of stress?

07:00 EST 16th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Atypical lateralization in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders: What is the role of stress?"

Hemispheric asymmetries are a major organizational principle of the human brain. In different neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, depression, dyslexia and posttraumatic stress disorder, functional and/or structural hemispheric asymmetries are altered compared to healthy controls. The question, why these disorders all share the common characteristic of altered hemispheric asymmetries despite vastly different etiologies and symptoms remains one of the unsolved mysteries of laterality research. This review is aimed at reviewing potential reasons for why atypical lateralization is so common in many neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. To this end, we review the evidence for overlaps in the genetic and non-genetic factors involved in the ontogenesis of different disorders and hemispheric asymmetries. While there is evidence for genetic overlap between different disorders, only few asymmetry-related loci have also been linked to disorders and importantly, those effects are mostly specific to single disorders. However, there is evidence for shared non-genetic influences between disorders and hemispheric asymmetries. Most neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders show alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis and maternal as well as early life stress have been implicated in their etiology. Stress has also been suggested to affect hemispheric asymmetries. We propose a model in which early life stress as well as chronic stress not only increases the risk for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders but also changes structural and functional hemispheric asymmetries leading to the aberrant lateralization patterns seen in these disorders. Thus, pathology-related changes in hemispheric asymmetries are not a factor causing disorders, but rather a different phenotype that is affected by partly overlapping ontogenetic factors, primarily stress.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior
ISSN: 1973-8102
Pages: 215-232


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [20437 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Absence of default mode downregulation in response to a mild psychological stressor marks stress-vulnerability across diverse psychiatric disorders.

Clinically, it is well-established that vulnerability to stress is a common feature across a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders. However, this link has been mechanistically studied almost exclusi...

Schizotypy and altered hemispheric asymmetries: The role of cilia genes.

Schizophrenia patients have a higher probability of altered structural and functional differences between the left and right hemisphere. Schizotypy as its nonclinical manifestation has been related to...

Neurotrophin Mediated HPA Axis Dysregulation in Stress Induced Genesis of Psychiatric Disorders: Orchestration by Epigenetic Modifications.

Apart from their established role in embryonic development, neurotrophins (NTs) have diverse functions in the nervous system. Their role in the integration of physiological and biochemical aspects of ...

Sleep is atypical across neurodevelopmental disorders in infants and toddlers: A cross-syndrome study.

This cross-syndrome study focuses on sleep and its relationship with language development. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders present with language delay. Typical language development is const...

Sensory processing related to attention in children with ASD, ADHD, or typical development: results from the ELENA cohort.

Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are early neurodevelopmental conditions that share clinical characteristics, raising important issues in clinical dia...

Clinical Trials [10492 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Cognitive and Brain Development in Adolescents With Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

In children with neurodevelopmental disorders, adolescence is usually associated with a reshaping of the clinical picture and symptomatology. Tourette syndrome (TS) is a paradigmal neurode...

Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children With Congenital Heart Disease

Children with congenital heart disease are at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders that will impact their quality of life and their integration into society. The aim of this study is to ...

Evaluation of Stress Sensitivity and Hyperemotivity in Epilepsy Compared to and a Group of Healthy Volunteers

Recently, a possible subtype of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has been proposed: this subtype presents ipsilateral amygdala enlargement (AE) without any other lesion. However, little is kno...

The Immune System and Psychiatric Disorders

The study is based on a hypothesis that there is interaction between the activity in the immune system and in the mind. To study this, the investigators register different measures for act...

Pharmacogenomics in Autism Treatment

Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that is thought to involve an interaction between multiple and variable susceptibility genes, environmental factors, and epigenetic effects....

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.

These are a group of conditions with onset in the developmental period. The disorders typically manifest early in development, often before the child enters grade school, and are characterized by developmental deficits that produce impairments of personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning. (From DSM-V).

Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.

The biologic treatment of mental disorders (e.g., ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY), in contrast with psychotherapy. (Stone, American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988, p159)

A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.

Quick Search

DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention.  Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...

Stress is caused by your perception of situations around you and then the reaction of your body to them. The automatic stress response to unexpected events is known as 'fight or flight'. Discovered by Walter Cannon in 1932, it is the release of h...

Searches Linking to this Article