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Hookworms cause a major neglected tropical disease, occurring after larvae penetrate the host skin. Neutrophils are phagocytes that kill large pathogens by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), but whether they target hookworms during skin infection is unknown. Using a murine hookworm, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, we observed neutrophils being rapidly recruited and deploying NETs around skin-penetrating larvae. Neutrophils depletion or NET inhibition altered larvae behavior and enhanced the number of adult worms following murine infection. Nevertheless, larvae were able to mitigate the effect of NETs by secreting a deoxyribonuclease (Nb-DNase II) to degrade the DNA backbone. Critically, neutrophils were able to kill larvae in vitro, which was enhanced by neutralizing Nb-DNase II. Homologs of Nb-DNase II are present in other nematodes, including the human hookworm, Necator americanus, which also evaded NETs in vitro. These findings highlight the importance of neutrophils in hookworm infection and a potential conserved mechanism of immune evasion.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell host & microbe
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The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
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A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
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