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Coronary artery diseases (CAD) are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality despite significant advances in their treatment. Therefore, current research focuses on identifying at-risk individuals with vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries prior to its rupture. This requires to determine specific biomarkers that can not only detect active vulnerable plaque, but also monitor the risk of its progression and rupture. Various biomolecules, from the foam cell formation to plaque rupture, are released into the blood plasma and may serve as biomarkers of atherogenesis. This review provides an up-to-date overview of some biomolecules released from activated macrophages with a focus on their potential utility for clinical practice. It is important that these biomarkers can distinguish patients with stable, inactive plaques from those with unstable, active plaques, and also predict an increased risk of acute coronary events. Special attention was focused on the selected myeloid markers of atherosclerosis and plaque instability, including macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and myeloperoxidase (MPO), which are released from activated leukocytes into blood plasma. Changed plasma levels of these biomarkers can indicate an acute phase of plaque destabilization. This makes it possible not only to measure their plasma concentrations using available biochemical laboratory methods, but also to apply them in clinical practice. In addition, the discussed biomarkers could be a potential therapeutic target leading to a reduction in premature morbidity and mortality of CAD.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Discovery medicine
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A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.
Receptors that bind and internalize the granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor. Their MW is believed to be 84 kD. The most mature myelomonocytic cells, specifically human neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, express the highest number of affinity receptors for this growth factor.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors prepared by recombinant DNA technology.