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As Bacillus anthracis spores pose a proven bio-terror risk, the treatment focus has shifted from exposed populations to anthrax patients and the need for effective antibiotic treatment protocols increases. The CDC recommends carbapenems and Linezolid (oxazolidinone), for the treatment of anthrax, particularly for the late, meningeal stages of the disease. Previously we demonstrated that treatment with Meropenem or Linezolid, either as a single treatment or in combination with Ciprofloxacin, fails to protect rabbits from anthrax-meningitis. In addition, we showed that the failure of Meropenem was due to slow BBB penetration rather than low antibacterial activity. Herein, we tested the effect of increasing the dose of the antibiotic on treatment efficacy. We found that for full protection (88% cure rate) the dose should be increased four-fold from 40 mg/kg to 150 mg/kg. In addition, B. anthracis is a genetically stable bacterium and naturally occurring multidrug resistant B. anthracis strains have not been reported. In this manuscript, we report the efficacy of classical β-lactams as a single treatment or in combination with β-lactamase inhibitors in treating anthrax meningitis. We demonstrate that Ampicillin based treatment of anthrax meningitis is largely efficient (66%). The high efficacy (88-100%) of Augmentin (Amoxicillin and Clavulonic acid) and Unasyn (Ampicillin and Sulbactam) makes them a favorable choice due to reports of β-lactam resistant B. anthracis strains. Tazocin (Piperacillin and Tazobactam) proved inefficient compared to the highly efficient Augmentin and Unasyn.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
Lethal and edema toxins are critical virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis. Few data are available on their presence in the early stage of intranasal infection.
To understand the epidemiological and genetic background of anthrax cases occurring in Vietnam from 2011 to 2015, we surveilled and genetically analyzed Bacillus anthracis isolated in the north of the...
Bacillus anthracis, a potent pathogen of anthrax is becoming resistant to many beta-lactam antibiotics because of the expression of two chromosomally encoded beta-lactamases Bla1 and Bla2. Bla1 is a c...
In Italy anthrax is an endemic disease, with a few outbreaks occurring almost every year. We surveyed 234 B. anthracis strains from animals (n = 196), humans (n = 3) and the environment (n = 35) isola...
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Whole blood samples will be collected from febrile patients presenting with fever of unknown origin and flu-like syndromes. Collection sites will consent patients and collect one (1) 4 mL ...
This field study is a post-marketing requirement from the FDA to evaluate the clinical benefit (course of illness and survival), safety and pharmacokinetics of obiltoxaximab administered t...
This prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, into the group of children in the hospital that use clinical antibiotics from one month to three...
The purpose of this study is to find out whether continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics or intermittent infusion or beta-lactam antibiotics, offers more health advantages to patien...
This is a dose ranging study comparing different vaccine schedules of rPA vaccine for anthrax. Safety and the capability to induce an immune response will be evaluated.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
LACTAMS forming compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-3 dozen atoms.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
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